Individual Physical Activity



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d Obtaining precise estimates of individual physical activity and energy expenditure is extremely challenging and is an unrealistic goal for most eld-based measures. Therefore, it is important to recognize the limitations of the estimates, particularly when extrapolating or reporting estimates at the individual level. Parallel progress is being made with reducing error in monitor-based measures and developing and refining measurement error models for report-based measures.

e According to classic hypothesis testing for differences, the null hypothesis is that the differences between the two measures are not equal to ā€œ0ā€ (i.e., differences are ā€œnon-randomā€). This is a rather unrealistic scenario, as no measure will result in identical values when compared to another. Equivalence testing ips the null hypothesis and this enables zones of equivalence to be established a priori and to be tested statistically. Details about equivalence testing methods are beyond the scope of this Guide, but the main point is to understand that equivalence testing is a more appropriate way to examine agreement than are standard tests of differences. Considering this issue when reviewing instruments and outcomes can help to facilitate interpretations.