Adapting Measures


  • An orientation for new researchers to key domains, processes, and resources in implementation science
    This paper describes five domains across D&I research and practice: context assessment and intervention selection, dissemination, adaptation, implementation, and sustainability. We also discuss evaluation and communication as critical processes to drive ongoing learning and improvement across the five domains. In each section, we include widely cited literature and resources that readers may use to orient themselves to the field, and we identify areas that they may want to explore further.
  • Evaluation of a Multi-Step Survey Translation Process in Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts. Series: Wiley Series in Survey Methodology
    This book addresses the need for refined tools and improved procedures in cross-cultural and cross-national studies worldwide. Based on research submitted to the International Conference on Multinational, Multicultural, and Multiregional Survey Methods (3MC), this book identifies important changes in comparative methodology approaches, outlines new findings, and provides insight into future developments in the field.
  • Guidelines for translating and adapting psychological instruments
    This paper argues that there is a need for guidelines outlining the minimum requirements to justify professional and ethical use of unstandardized psychological instruments. The author suggests eight criteria that must be met to justify the use of unstandardized instruments in applied settings.
  • Management of substance abuse: Process of translation and adaptation of instruments
    The World Health Organization provides information on the process for achieving different language versions of the English instrument that are conceptually equivalent in each of the target countries/cultures. That is, the instrument should be equally natural and acceptable and should practically perform in the same way. The focus of this website is cross-cultural and conceptual equivalence rather than linguistic/literal equivalence.
  • Towards a comprehensive model for understanding adaptations’ impact: the model for adaptation design and impact (MADI)
    This research promotes systematic assessment of intended and unintended impacts of adaptations by using existing frameworks to create a model that proposes relationships among constructs.
  • Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of assessment instruments used in psychological research with children and families
    This paper discusses issues related to the translation and adaptation of assessment instruments for use in other cultures and/or languages. The paper also reviews existing literature on translation and shares examples from the clinical child and family psychology field to illustrate relevant issues.

Example articles

  • Auxiliary measures to assess factors related to food insecurity: Preliminary testing and baseline characteristics of newly designed hunger-coping scales
    This paper aims to describe the development and preliminary testing of new scales to assess hunger-coping behaviors in a very low-income population.
  • Cultural adaptation of physical activity self-report instruments
    The objective of this paper is to describe an approach to further tailor physical activity self-report measures to a target community, and to report on focus group and cognitive interview findings.
  • Cognitive testing of physical activity and acculturation questions in recent and long-term Latino immigrants
    This paper ascertains the degree to which language (English versus Spanish) and residence time in the United States influence responses to survey questions concerning two topics: self-reported acculturation status, and recent physical activity.
  • Home food and activity assessment: Development and validation of an instrument for diverse families of young children
    The purpose of this study was to refine and psychometrically test an instrument measuring the home food and activity environment of geographically and economically diverse families of preschool-age children.

Measurement Tools and Resources

  • Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures
    This project aims to advance adult obesity treatment in the face of well-documented individual variability in response to a wide range of treatment modalities.
  • Cross-cultural survey guidelines
    These guidelines were developed as part of the Comparative Survey Design and Implementation (CSDI) Guidelines Initiative. The aim of the initiative was to promote internationally recognized guidelines that highlight best practice for the conduct of multinational, multicultural, or multiregional surveys.
  • Measuring Racial Equity in the Food System
    This tool offers an expansive list of metrics that U.S. food system practitioners and food movement organizations can use to hold themselves accountable for progress toward a more equitable food system.

Example tools

  • An Interactive Mapping Tool to Assess Individual Mobility Patterns in Neighborhood Studies
    Visualization and Evaluation of Route Itineraries, Travel Destinations, and Activity Spaces, or VERITAS, is an interactive web mapping application that can geolocate individuals’ activity places, routes between locations, and relevant areas such as experienced or perceived neighborhoods.
  • The Sleep for Science Research Lab’s School Sleep Habits Survey
    The School Sleep Habits Survey was administered to more than 3,000 high school students in Rhode Island. Survey items are available for free online.

Compendia of measures

  • The Dietary Assessment Calibration/Validation Register
    A register of calibration/validation studies and publications, this research resource was developed as a means of keeping the international nutrition and health community aware of calibration/validation studies on dietary assessment methods being conducted worldwide.
  • Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)
    PROMIS is a set of person-centered measures that evaluates and monitors physical, mental, and social health in adults and children. It can be used with the general population and with individuals living with chronic conditions.
  • PhenX Toolkit
    This catalogue of recommended measurement protocols was developed by the scientific community via a consensus-based process. It is a web-based resource freely available for use.
  • The Register of Validated Short Dietary Assessment Instruments
    The purpose of the register is to provide easy access to descriptive information about validated short instruments. The register contains descriptive information about the instruments identified (more than 135), along with any associated validation studies and publications, and copies of the instruments themselves when available.
  • The Short Dietary Assessment Instruments
    Short dietary assessment instruments, often called screeners, may be useful in situations that do not require assessment of the total diet or quantitative accuracy in dietary estimates.

Guides to measurement

  • The Dietary Assessment Primer
    The Dietary Assessment Primer has six sections to help researchers determine the best way to assess diet for any study in which estimates of group intakes are required.
  • Evaluating obesity prevention efforts: A plan for measuring progress
    This book develops a concise and actionable plan for measuring the nation’s progress in obesity prevention efforts—specifically, the success of policy and environmental strategies recommended in the 2012 IOM report Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation. This book offers a framework that will provide guidance for systematic and routine planning, implementation, and evaluation of the advancement of obesity prevention efforts.
  • Practical Guide to Measuring Physical Activity
    This article summarizes the main methods of measuring physical activity and offers examples of their uses in research trials.
  • Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report
    The purpose of this article is to provide a mini review of the self-report sleep measures used in children.
  • Toward Quality Measures for Population Health and the Leading Health Indicators
    The scope of work for this project is to use the nine aims for improvement of quality in public health (population-centered, equitable, proactive, health promoting, risk reducing, vigilant, transparent, effective, and efficient) as a framework to identify quality measures for the Healthy People Leading Health Indicators (LHIs).


  • Beyond Health Care: The Role of Social Determinants in Promoting Health and Health Equity (Kaiser Family Foundation)
    This brief provides an overview of social determinants of health and emerging initiatives to address them.
  • Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures in Electronic Health Records
    This report identifies domains and measures that capture the social determinants of health to inform the development of recommendations for the meaningful use of EHRs. This report is the second part of a two-part study. The Phase 1 report identified 17 domains for inclusion in EHRs. This report pinpoints 12 measures related to 11 of the initial domains and considers the implications of incorporating them into all EHRs. This book includes three chapters from the Phase 1 report in addition to the new Phase 2 material.
  • CDC Evaluation Framework
    The Framework for Evaluation in Public Health guides public health professionals in their use of program evaluation. It is a practical, nonprescriptive tool, designed to summarize and organize essential elements of program evaluation.
  • CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index
    CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index uses 15 U.S. census variables at tract level to help local officials identify communities that may need support in preparing for hazards or recovering from disaster. The Geospatial Research, Analysis, and Services Program (GRASP) created and maintains CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index.
  • Creating Supportive Nutrition Environments for Population Health Impact and Health Equity: An Overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network’s Efforts
    The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability.
  • CUBES: A practical toolkit to measure enablers and barriers to behavior for effective intervention design
    The CUBES toolkit enables programs across global development sectors to streamline the process of conceptualizing, designing, and optimizing interventions, and ultimately to change behaviors and achieve targeted outcomes.
  • Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO)
    ECHO uses information from existing longitudinal research projects (cohorts) that will include more than 50,000 children from diverse backgrounds across the United States. Together, these cohorts follow participants from before they are born through childhood and adolescence. ECHO also supports a 17-state clinical trial network to test prevention and treatment strategies among children from rural and medically underserved backgrounds.
  • Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool
    In order to better meet EPA’s responsibilities related to the protection of public health and the environment, the Agency has developed a new environmental justice (EJ) mapping and screening tool called EJSCREEN. It is based on nationally consistent data and an approach that combines environmental and demographic indicators in maps and reports.
  • The FAST Lab The Fidelity, Adaptation, Sustainability, and Training Lab at The National Center for PTSD and Stanford University
    The FAST. Lab studies implementation science in conjunction with Cognitive Behavior Therapies and other Evidence-Based treatments for PTSD, Depression, and other mental/behavioral health issues.
  • A Framework for Increasing Equity Impact in Obesity Prevention
    This article proposes a framework to guide practitioners and researchers in public health and other fields that contribute to obesity prevention in identifying ways to give greater priority to equity issues when undertaking policy, systems, and environmental change strategies.
  • A Framework for Understanding Modifications to Measures for Diverse Populations
    This is a framework of issues to consider when modifying measures for diverse populations. Authors describe reasons for considering modifications, the types of information that can be used as a basis for making modifications, and the types of modifications researchers have made.
  • Getting to Equity in Obesity Prevention: A New Framework
    This equity-oriented obesity prevention action framework, which builds on the APOP framework, was developed to aid in solving obesity as a major community health problem for the populations, subgroups, and communities that face the greatest challenges in achieving and maintaining healthy weight.
  • HDPulse
    HDPulse is an ecosystem of health disparities and minority health resources that visualizes data (maps, graphs and tables) for understanding minority health, health disparities and their determinants. Data are provided for states and/or counties.
  • Measurement of Health Disparities, Health Inequities, and Social Determinants of Health to Support the Advancement of Health Equity
    This article proposes a set of recommended practices in measurement of health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level to support the advancement of health equity.
  • Measuring What Works to Achieve Health Equity: Metrics for the Determinants of Health
    This paper provides a framework for understanding how disparities in health outcomes are produced and how health equity can be achieved, particularly by addressing the determinants of health.
  • Model for incorporating social context in health behavior interventions: applications for cancer prevention for working-class, multiethnic populations
    This article proposes a conceptual framework for addressing social contextual factors in cancer prevention interventions and describes work that operationalizes this model in interventions for working class, multiethnic populations.
  • Standardized Screening for Health-Related Social Needs in Clinical Settings: The Accountable Health Communities Screening Tool
    CMS’s Accountable Health Communities Model addresses the critical gap between clinical care and community services in the current health care delivery system by testing whether systematically identifying and addressing the health-related social needs of Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries impacts their total health care costs and improves health.
  • University of Washington Science Resource Hub: Research
    The UW Science Resource Hub is an easy-to-use webpage that guides researchers through the research process, from framing questions to reporting results.
  • The UnProcessed Pantry Project Framework to Address Nutrition in the Emergency Food System
    The UnProcessed Pantry Project (UP3) framework adapts the NOVA framework and HHS and USDA’s 2015 Dietary Recommendations for Americans to apply to the food pantry setting.
  • What Is Dissemination and Implementation Science?: An Introduction and Opportunities to Advance Behavioral Medicine and Public Health Globally
    This piece provides an introduction to dissemination and implementation science; summarizes key concepts and progress of the field for a global audience; provides two case studies that highlight examples of D&I research globally; and identifies opportunities and innovations for advancing the field of D&I research globally.
Never miss a newsletter

We are social

Check us out on Facebook, LinkedIn,
Twitter and YouTube